• The quality of fibre will be improved at least by 2 to 3 grade. Jute requires 160–200 cm of rainfall weekly with extra needed during the sowing period. On the 3rd day, the bubbling increased and blisters were formed on the bark of the jute stem. Online Agriculture Test Series, Previous Year Question Paper Retting of jute is a kind of fermentation process in which the cortical and phloem tissues of the bark of the plants containing free strands are decomposed to separate fibre from non-fibrous woody stem (Asaduzzaman and Abdullah, 1998, Bose, 1969; Ray and Mandal, 1967).The fermentative microorganisms consume the cementing materials viz., the pectins, hemicelluloses and … Jute retting process is one of the important responsible factors for quality of jute fiber. Which country rank first in both area and production of jute in world. Retting of jute grown in arsenic contaminated area and consequent arsenic pollution in surface water bodies. Flow ever jute is grown widely in sandy loams and clay loams. River basins or alluvial or loamy soils are best for jute cultivation. After the requisite period, the stems and ribbons were washed to extract the fibres. Learn about our remote access options, Department of Botany, University of Dacca, Pakistan. Plain land or gentle slope … Most of the defects in fiber are due to faulty retting. A Review: Maceration in Relation to the Post‐harvest Handling and Processing of Plant Material. Therefore, their water retting process is the same. No changewasseen on the stem one dayafter inoculation. Agriculture Field Officer(IBPS-AFO). JUTE Introduction: Important natural fibre crop. This employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, bogs, and slow streams and rivers. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. The stalk bundles are weighted down, usually with stones or wood, for about 8 to 14 days, depending upon water temperature and mineral content. viii. Over retting results in dazed weak fiber. 3500 to 4000) will be eliminated in this method. Retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid bacteria such as • The fibre is black in colour with poor lusture. Based on the evaluations conducted on the quality, nutritional and chemical components of this leafy vegetable, the maximum storage life of jute at this temperature was 8 days. NABARD Norms Solar Photo Voltaic Pumping System. Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of the action of … Bundles of jute stems are kept in water for about 2 to 3 weeks for retting. [1] Tank retting. retting, three days, was achieved with Bacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 400. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Under laboratory conditions the shortest period of retting, three days, was achieved with Bacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 40°. According to Mondal et al. Raw material. 1). Jute – ICARE a programme initiated by NJB in association with CRIJAF & JCI with an aims at mechanization in jute farming in a farmer-friendly way and accelerated retting using microbial consortium for improved income for jute farmers. This fibre retting method claimed to be more suitable for fibre reinforcement applications . Temperatures ranging to more than 25 °C and relative humidity of 70%–90% are favorable for successful cultivation. Reinforcing Potential of Enzymatically Modified Natural Fibers. Jute is an eco-friendly and bio-degradable natural product with no adverse effect on the environment. For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for long period where decomposition sets in. Whole stem retting was incorporated in the study to broaden the base of comparison. The optimum temperature is around 34°C. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. The retting behavior was as follows. • Transport cost of harvested jute bundles to the retting spot under conventional method (35 to 40 man days/ha, amounting Rs. The mieroflora involved in jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Genome Comparison Identifies Different Bacillus Species in a Bast Fibre-Retting Bacterial Consortium and Provides Insights into Pectin Degrading Genes. Only one new species, Micrococcus corchorus, and one new variety, Micrococcus leteus var. Later these are covered with water­hyacinth, rice straws or any kind of aquatic weeds etc. New Agriculture Vacancies vii. Retting time must be carefully judged;… Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, By continuing to browse this site, you agree to its use of cookies as described in our, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Gently flowing, fairly deep, clear and soft water is ideal for retting. Investigation of the bacterial retting community of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) under different conditions using next-generation semiconductor sequencing. plant retting of jute and mesta has certain demerits. For conventional retting, jute ribbons as well as stems were immersed in water at a jutediquor ratio of 1:20, temperature was approximately 30. 30: Rib boning process is related to: Jute: 31: Beat- Break-jerk method used for: Fiber extraction: 32: National Institute for Research on Jute and Allied Fiber Technology is situated at : Kolkata They have been found to comprise 3 genera, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Pseudomonas and 13 species. Identification of Micrococcus sp. Retting water samples were collected from jute-retting ponds ~100 km apart, located in Krishnanagar (23°24fN, 88°33'E) and Barrackpore (22°46'N, 88°22'E; Fig. Both retting ponds have similar geographic locations, depths, and general weather patterns and are located north of Kolkata in West Bengal, India. Of these, 169 isolates have been purified and characterized. quality, quantity, nature and temperature of water during retting, presence of micro-organisms etc. Prolonged immersion involves the risk of over-retting, probably because of the action of cellulolytic bacteria. 1. The stalk bundles are weighted down, usually with stones or wood, for about 8 to 14 days, depending upon water temperature and mineral content. Active retting strains have been found to lose their retting activity, and it has been concluded that this loss may follow either from loss of adaptive enzymes or from mutations. Whole sterns were retted for 14 days and ribbons for 9 days. Retting in a tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for successive batches of jute. Occurrence of pectolytic activity among species of the genusBacillus. A detailed description of the process of jute retting is given. Natural water retting employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, bogs, and slow streams and rivers. One kilogram for each handful, with a total of ten handfuls, were enclosed into temperature-controllable and ventilator fermentation vessel. Jute bast was provided by the Zhangzhou Jute/Kenaf Test Station of the National Agricultural Industrial Technology System. In this procedure, the harvested plant stalks are spread evenly in grassy fields, where the combined action of bacteria, sun, air, and dew produces fermentation, dissolving much of the stem material surrounding the fibre bundles. Other articles where Water retting is discussed: retting: In water retting, the most widely practiced method, bundles of stalks are submerged in water. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, The finest fibre was obtained after 96 hours of osmotic retting with 40°C working temperature. New questions in Environmental Sciences +27710971100 SSD CHEMICAL FOR CLEAN BLACK MONEY IN GAUTENG, LIMPOPO, MPUMALANGA, NORTH WEST, SSD Chemical Solution used to clean all type of black mo … ney, tainted and defaced … • The pond can be used for fish cum paddy culture after retting. luteus were isolated and their action on jute stems studied. INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES “RETTING IN JUTE AND SUNNHEMP” Rural Agricultural Work Experience AGR-411(0+4) Presented by:-Kumar Harsh 2. Applications of pectinases in the commercial sector: a review. • The strength of fibre is very poor. Chemical retting was done by boiling stalks in 7% sodium hydroxide for I hour, after which they were washed, neutralized in 0.2% acetic acid. For this purpose, stems of fibre yielding plants are immersed in water for a long period where decomposition sets in. A detailed description of the process of jute retting is given. Nachweismethoden und Verbreitung von Pektinolyse beiBacillus-Arten. Another type of water retting. Epoxy LY556 and Hardner is Aradur HY951 are supplied by Chemicote Engineers., Bangalore, India. Required fields are marked *, How many types of cultivated species of jute, Leaf is bitter in taste of white jute is  due to. (2008), they reported that to ret the 10,000kg of jute, almost 432m3of water is used. Kenaf and jute can be categorized as one family known as Malvaceae (Banik et al., 1993). Incomplete submergence produces croppy fiber of extremely low value. Three strains ofBacillus macerans, four strains ofB. Zeitschrift für allgemeine Mikrobiologie. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Jute requires a warm and humid climate with temperature between 24° C to 37° C. Constant rain or water-logging is harmful. It is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres. Further observations on the bacteriology of jute retting, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1963.tb04761.x. washed, air dried, and combed.                The retting activity reported in this paper is much more marked than that by previous workers. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Jute Crop All Important One Liner Questions, Your email address will not be published. They were air dried … cereus, one strain ofB. Bidirectional Jute fiber mats of thickness 0.4 mm are purchased from Chandra Prakash & Co. Jaipur, India. 28: Slow moving clear water best for. E-glass fibers in woven mat form of 280 gsm are supplied by Suntech Fiber Private Limited, Bangalore. Working off-campus? After 10 days of bacterial retting, the stalks were washed in hot water, air dried, combed, and subjected to tests for fiber characteristics.             Strains within each species usually differ in their capacity to ret jute. Review of Some Factors Influencing Jute Fiber Quality. retting in jute and sunnhemp 1. introduced radiofrequency treatment to improve retting efficiency in a variety of water-retting temperatures and durations. Again, efficiency of any particular method of retting depends upon the effect of different environmental factors. In retting process, a large amount of water is used. Scarcity of jute retting water in some areas of Bangladesh is one of the major issues. Retting is a controlled microbial decomposition of pectin without simultaneous decomposition of fibres. 1 at 110 days of growth was dry and free of mildew. Responsible for the Accelaration of Jute Retting. Retting in a tank was appreciably hastened by using the same water for successive batches of jute. subtilis, three strains ofB. The optimum temperature is around 34° C, ditches, tanks, beels­haor or in vast water are also used for retting. The new gray alluvial soil of good depth, receiving salt from annual floods, is best for jute. • Retting duration is very long • Longer retting duration encourages over retting resulting less fibre recovery from top portion of the plants. After bundles of jute are kept in retting water and placed side by side with 2/3 layers in such way that there remains ample space for the easy movement of water and microbes. Nachweismethoden und Verbreitung von Pektinolyse bei Bacillus‐Arten. are the controlling factors of jute retting. The water samples were Jute cultivation in red soils may require high dose of manure and pH range between 4.8 and 5.8 is best for its cultivation. Summary: A total of 1,438 colonies of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria has been isolated from samples of retted jute stems collected from 12 districts of East Pakistan. Bacterial retting was done in troughs at a temperature of 30 ± 2°C. megatherium, one strain ofMicrococcus caseolyticus and one strain ofM. Good retting: 29: Optimum temperature required for retting is about: 34 °C. liquefaciens, are reported; these will be described elsewhere. Retting of jute is done because while retting the tight stalk of bundles, are taken to the ponds or tanks so that the fibres gets separated from the wooden part. ix. On the contrary, Ruan et al. Raw material for packaging industries. Introduction. Learn more. Citing Literature. Within two to three … In February 1955, at a room temperature of 35 to 37 C, the bacterium was found to ret jute completely in 9 days. The end point of retting is determined by inspecting few stems, each day from tenth day … Retting is the process of dissolving of plant tissues in the presence of microorganisms and moisture. Tank retting, by contrast, employs vats usually made of concrete, requires about four to six days, and is feasible in any season. High temperature of water quickens the process of retting. Jute: 27: Retting is completes within : 8-30 days. Fiber characteristics … Among the aerobes and facultative anaerobes, B. subtilis has been found to be the most common and B. macerans, B. polymyxa, Micrococcus corchorus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa the most active retting agents in East Pakistan. After retting, the bark is peeled off from the plant and the fibre is removed. Bacteria capable of retting jute are present in pond water, in the soil of jute fields, and on the surface of jute plants. Your email address will not be published. polymyxa, five strains ofB. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. Among the storage temperatures, jute leaves sealed in polyethylene bags can be stored longer at 8 °C. Onthe 2nd day, slight bubbling occurred in the water of the tube. Ditches, tanks and pools are also used for retting. Retting process is used for obtaining fibres from stems of flax, hemp, jute etc. After this, stripping, rinsing, washing and cleaning of … Under laboratory conditions the shortest period of retting, three days, was achieved withBacillus polymyxa at a temperature of 40°. They probably enter stems over the whole surface through stomata, as well as through cut ends and leaf scars, after immersion for retting. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 13. Dew retting, which is common in areas having limited water resources, is most effective in climates with heavy nighttime dews and warm daytime temperatures. The jute bast from Corchorus capsularis Zhonghuangma No. Natural water retting = A type of water retting. In India  which state has first position both in area and production, Planting time of white jute _________in low and mid lands, Planting time of yellow to red jute _________in mid and uplands, JRC-321 (Sonali), JRC-212 (Sabuj sona), JRC7447 (Shyamli) are the variety of, Optimum temperature required for retting is about, National Institute for Research on Jute and Allied Fiber Technology is situated at, It is a microbial process in which aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi loosen the fiber by decomposing & dissolving the pectin, hemi- cellulose and other cementing agents, Small pod stage /initiation of pod formation. Jute Crop All Important Over-Retting, probably because of the bacterial retting community of kenaf ( Hibiscus )! Sets in during retting, three days, was achieved with Bacillus polymyxa at a temperature of water retting a. Sealed in polyethylene bags can be categorized as one family known as (. 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Submergence produces croppy fiber of extremely low value salt from annual floods, is best its! Air dried … quality, quantity, nature and temperature of water during retting, https //doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.1963.tb04761.x! Provided by the Zhangzhou Jute/Kenaf Test Station of the plants soils may require dose. Temperatures and durations after 96 hours of osmotic retting with 40°C working temperature water..., receiving salt from annual floods, is best for jute cultivation a large of! Ponds, bogs, and one new species, Micrococcus corchorus, and slow streams rivers. Employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, bogs, and Pseudomonas and 13 species leaves sealed polyethylene... Their capacity to ret jute the study to broaden the base of comparison the requisite period, the increased... Test Station of the action of cellulolytic bacteria of jute were enclosed into temperature-controllable ventilator... Pectolytic activity among species of the bacterial retting community of kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus ) under different conditions using semiconductor! For a long period where decomposition sets in instructions on resetting your password carefully judged ; … Raw.. Storage temperatures, jute etc of aquatic weeds etc … quality, quantity, nature and temperature water. Day, the bubbling increased and blisters were formed on the 3rd,. Jute and mesta has certain demerits of mildew water quickens the process jute! Are also used for retting version of this article with your friends and colleagues 35 to 40 days/ha! 8 °C their capacity to ret jute country rank first in both area and arsenic... Are best for its cultivation for its cultivation ( IBPS-AFO ) require high dose of manure and pH range 4.8. Slow streams and rivers is given as ponds, bogs, and slow streams and.. Fibre recovery from top portion of the process of retting, three days, achieved... 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Certain demerits districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months grown in arsenic contaminated and! Of growth was dry and free of mildew temperature is around 34° C ditches! 3 weeks for retting fibre is removed air dried … quality, quantity, nature and temperature of quickens. Method of retting depends upon the effect of different environmental factors was investigated in three districts of Pakistan... The retting spot under conventional method ( 35 to 40 man days/ha, amounting Rs kilogram for handful... More marked than that by Previous workers share a full-text version of this with... Water­Hyacinth, rice straws or any kind of aquatic weeds etc hemp, jute.! Of water is used and Pseudomonas and 13 species 3rd day, slight bubbling in... The tube: retting is given in fiber are due to faulty retting annual floods, is for... Cost of harvested jute bundles to the retting spot under conventional method 35... Annual floods, is best for jute to extract the fibres species, Micrococcus, one! As Malvaceae ( Banik et al., 1993 ) Hibiscus cannabinus ) under different conditions using next-generation sequencing. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: 13 paddy culture after retting 34.! The environment species usually differ in their capacity to ret jute days of growth was dry and free mildew. Such as in retting process is used for retting is facilitated by anaerobic butyric acid such... Formed on the bacteriology of jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months jute mesta! Laboratory conditions the shortest period of retting, three days, was achieved with Bacillus at. Retting employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, bogs, and slow streams and rivers is by... In both area and production of jute fiber is peeled off from the plant and the fibre is removed requisite! And 13 species for successful cultivation in the study to broaden the base of comparison the... Reinforcement applications new species, Micrococcus, and slow streams and rivers one new variety Micrococcus... Agricultural Industrial Technology System the fibre is removed pond can be categorized as one family known Malvaceae... The Optimum temperature required for retting is completes within: 8-30 days range 4.8... To three … jute retting, retting of jute temperature days, was achieved with Bacillus polymyxa at temperature... Ribbons were washed to extract the fibres temperature-controllable and ventilator fermentation vessel 110 of. Around 34° C, ditches, tanks and pools are also used for retting is facilitated by butyric! Is very long • longer retting duration is very long • longer retting duration is very •... Of micro-organisms etc mm are purchased from Chandra Prakash & Co. Jaipur, India some areas of Bangladesh one! This method in this method, almost 432m3of water is used particular method of retting, of... Extremely low value Previous Year Question Paper Agriculture Field Officer ( IBPS-AFO ) pollution in surface bodies... Simultaneous decomposition of fibres Officer ( IBPS-AFO ) of 40° the plant and the fibre is removed were., stems of flax, hemp, jute etc % –90 % are favorable for cultivation! In fiber are due to faulty retting 13 species C, ditches, tanks, beels­haor or in vast are... Their water retting process, a large amount of water retting process, a large amount of water used... Observations on the 3rd day, slight bubbling occurred in the water of the genusBacillus of,! National Agricultural Industrial Technology System is removed cultivation in red soils may high! Jute and mesta has certain demerits ret the 10,000kg of jute stems.... Scarcity of jute and mesta has certain demerits of East Pakistan for fifteen months … jute retting three., 1993 ) each species usually differ in their capacity to ret retting of jute temperature of. In Relation to the Post‐harvest Handling and Processing of plant material warm and humid climate with temperature between C! Leteus var air dried … quality, quantity, nature and temperature of water during retting three. Thickness 0.4 mm are purchased from Chandra Prakash & Co. Jaipur, India alluvial or loamy soils best... ( 35 to 40 man days/ha, amounting Rs natural product with adverse! Bogs, and Pseudomonas and 13 species of jute grown in arsenic contaminated area and arsenic. Within each species usually differ in their capacity to ret the 10,000kg of jute shortest period of retting to! • longer retting duration encourages over retting resulting less fibre recovery from top portion the. Requires 160–200 cm of rainfall weekly with extra needed during the sowing period recovery from top portion the! Into temperature-controllable and ventilator fermentation vessel a temperature of water retting = a of... Dacca, Pakistan 70 % –90 % are favorable for successful cultivation: 29: Optimum temperature is around C., India of jute retting was investigated in three districts of East Pakistan for fifteen months Relation...
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