This contrast placed a strong emphasis within the ancient Greek consciousness as to the moral and ontological acceptance of the mythology of the Titanomachia as an accomplished mythological history, whereas for the synthesis of the New Testament narratives this placed religious consciousness within the community at the level of an anticipated eschaton not yet accomplished. Grand Sonata, Op. Its reputed author was anciently supposed to have lived in the 8th century BC, but M. L. West has argued that it can't be earlier than the late 7th century BC. Angelo Casanova,[16] professor of Greek literature at the University of Florence, finds in Prometheus a reflection of an ancient, pre-Hesiodic trickster-figure, who served to account for the mixture of good and bad in human life, and whose fashioning of humanity from clay was an Eastern motif familiar in Enuma Elish. It is the first of these three which has drawn attention to parallels with the biblical creation account related in the religious symbolism expressed in the book of Genesis. [66] Anecdotally, the Roman fabulist Phaedrus (c.15 BC – c.50 AD) attributes to Aesop a simple etiology for homosexuality, in Prometheus' getting drunk while creating the first humans and misapplying the genitalia.[67]. "[19], Olga Raggio, in her study "The Myth of Prometheus", attributes Plato in the Protagoras as an important contributor to the early development of the Prometheus myth. Prometheus is known for his intelligence and for being a champion of humankind,[3] and is also seen as the author of the human arts and sciences generally. Prometheus is the lyrical "I" who speaks in Goethe's Sturm und Drang poem "Prometheus" (written c. 1772–74, published 1789), addressing God (as Zeus) in misotheist accusation and defiance. Clue: Greek god of fire. Among the most famous examples is that of Piero di Cosimo from about 1510 presently on display at the museums of Munich and Strasburg (see Inset). Hesiod: Works and Days. Continuing in this same tradition of the allegorical interpretation of the Prometheus myth, along with the historical interpretation of the Middle Ages, is the Genealogiae of Giovanni Boccaccio. "Variants of legends containing the Prometheus motif are widespread in the Caucasus" region, reports Hunt,[56] who gave ten stories related to Prometheus from ethno-linguistic groups in the region. Shakespeare's symbolic reference to the "heat" associated with Prometheus' fire is to the association of the gift of fire to the mythological gift or theological gift of life to humans. In. Prometheus is the creative and rebellious spirit rejected by God and who angrily defies him and asserts himself. As stated by Raggio,[57] "The Prometheus myth of creation as a visual symbol of the Neoplatonic concept of human nature, illustrated in (many) sarcophagi, was evidently a contradiction of the Christian teaching of the unique and simultaneous act of creation by the Trinity." Years later, the Greek hero Heracles, with Zeus' permission, killed the eagle and freed Prometheus from this torment (521–529). Free P&P . Veronese Bronze Resin Figurine/sculpture of a Lady Golfer-made in 2000. According to the fourth, everyone grew weary of the meaningless affair. [14][failed verification]. His Zeus does not arrive at decisions which he then enacts in the mortal world; rather, human events are themselves an enactment of divine will. Juno, Uni) Goddess of goddesses, women, and marriage and wife of Zeus. (1932), I Sarcofagi Christiani, II, p. 226. Andere Angebote 41,90 € (6 neue Artikel) 10 kg Greek Fire Profi-Holzkohlebriketts. Neither of these would guide Percy Shelley in his poetic retelling and re-integration of the Prometheus myth. For generations, scholars warred incessantly over 'the justice of Zeus,' unintentionally blurring it with a monotheism imported from Judeo-Christian thought. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Rosenmeyer insists that ascribing portrayed characters in Aeschylus should not conclude them to be either victims or agents of theological or religious activity too quickly. "The Prometheus Story in Plato’s Protagoras. After the writings of both Boccaccio and Ficino in the late Middle Ages about Prometheus, interest in the Titan shifted considerably in the direction of becoming subject matter for painters and sculptors alike. [38] Reflecting a myth attested in Greek vase paintings from the Classical period, Pseudo-Apollodorus places the Titan (armed with an axe) at the birth of Athena, thus explaining how the goddess sprang forth from the forehead of Zeus. [2] Prometheus is a culture hero and trickster figure[citation needed] who is credited with the creation of humanity from clay, and who defies the gods by stealing fire and giving it to humanity as civilization. The same reference to the Genealogiae can be cited as the source for the drawing by Parmigianino presently located in the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York City. Hesiod, in Theogony, introduces Prometheus as a lowly challenger to Zeus's omniscience and omnipotence. The imagery of Prometheus and the creation of man used for the purposes of the representation of the creation of Adam in biblical symbolism is also a recurrent theme in the artistic expression of late Roman antiquity. Othello in contemplating the death of Desdemona asserts plainly that he cannot restore the "Promethean heat" to her body once it has been extinguished. This Neoplatonism of late Roman antiquity was especially stressed by Tertullian[58] who recognised both difference and similarity of the biblical deity with the mythological figure of Prometheus. For his crimes, Prometheus is punished by Zeus who bound him with chains, and sent an eagle to eat Prometheus' immortal liver every day, which then grew back every night. [36][37] In Plato's dialogue Protagoras, Protagoras asserts that the gods created humans and all the other animals, but it was left to Prometheus and his brother Epimetheus to give defining attributes to each. 1993. Oxford: Clarendon. [citation needed]. 60 The Poem of Fire by Scriabin, Richter and Svetlanov (1995). As Raggio summarises Ficino's text, "The torture of Prometheus is the torment brought by reason itself to man, who is made by it many times more unhappy than the brutes. This angered Zeus, who hid fire from humans in retribution. He set up a trap that consisted of a net of very strong, very fine bronze webs, that would shoot out and trap Ares and Aphrodite. [citation needed] He is sometimes presented as the father of Deucalion, the hero of the flood story. Henceforth, humans would keep that meat for themselves and burn the bones wrapped in fat as an offering to the gods. She is consequently married off to the mortal Peleus, and bears him a son greater than the father – Achilles, Greek hero of the Trojan War. He placed two sacrificial offerings before the Olympian: a selection of beef hidden inside an ox's stomach (nourishment hidden inside a displeasing exterior), and the bull's bones wrapped completely in "glistening fat" (something inedible hidden inside a pleasing exterior). A similar rendering is also found at the great altar of Zeus at Pergamon from the second century BC. Prometheus Bound also includes two mythic innovations of omission. [71] In the drawing, a very noble rendering of Prometheus is presented which evokes the memory of Michelangelo's works portraying Jehovah. Although perhaps made explicit in the Prometheia, later authors such as Hyginus, the Bibliotheca, and Quintus of Smyrna would confirm that Prometheus warned Zeus not to marry the sea nymph Thetis. 129–149 (21 pages), In this Casanova is joined by some editors of. Originally a deity of Asia Minor and the adjoining islands (in particular Lemnos), Hephaestus had an important place of worship at the Lycian Olympus. The poem has appeared in Volume 6 of Goethe's poems (in his Collected Works) in a section of Vermischte Gedichte (assorted poems), shortly following the Harzreise im Winter. His version was written in response to the version of myth as presented by Aeschylus and is orientated to the high British Idealism and high British Romanticism prevailing in Shelley's own time. This short piece by Kafka concerning his interest in Prometheus was supplemented by two other mythological pieces written by him. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). [88] In the same year Gabriel Fauré composed his three-act opera Prométhée (1910). 1957. The Vedic myth of fire's theft by Mātariśvan is an analogue to the Greek account. ", Miller, Clyde L. 1978. [33] Raggio indicates that many of the more challenging and dramatic assertions which Aeschylean tragedy explores are absent from Plato's writings about Prometheus. As documented by Raggio, other leading figures among the great Romantics included Byron, Longfellow and Nietzsche as well. [89] Charles-Valentin Alkan composed his Grande sonate 'Les quatre âges' (1847), with the 4th movement entitled "Prométhée enchaîné" (Prometheus Bound). The artisan's cap was also depicted as worn by the Cabeiri,[49] supernatural craftsmen associated with a mystery cult known in Athens in classical times, and who were associated with both Hephaistos and Prometheus. According to myth, Hephaestus was born lame and was cast from heaven in disgust by his mother, Hera, and again by his father, Zeus, after a family quarrel. There are no related clues (shown below). [citation needed]. The poem was written between 1772 and 1774. As an opponent of Zeus he was an analogue of the Titans and, like them, was punished. In art Hephaestus was generally represented as a middle-aged bearded man, although occasionally a younger, beardless type is found. Prométhée, . [38], It is understandable that since Prometheus was considered a Titan (distinct from an Olympian) that there would be an absence of evidence, with the exception of Athens, for the direct religious devotion to his worship. For Bloom, Percy Shelley's relationship to the tradition of mythology in poetry "culminates in 'Prometheus'. Hephaestus, the god of fire and metal-working, was the son of Zeus and Hera. [34], As summarised by Raggio,.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}. Prometheus was bound to a rock, and an eagle—the emblem of Zeus—was sent to eat his liver (in ancient Greece, the liver was often thought to be the seat of human emotions). Hyperion, Helius, Apollo and Phanes were listed as sun gods, while there are even more moon goddesses, such Phoebe, Artemis, Selene, Hecate, Nemesis, Eurynome, and even a few mortals, like Britomartis (later Dictynna), Pasiphae. A variant tradition makes Prometheus the son of Hera like Hephaistos. According to these sources, Prometheus fashioned humans out of clay. Greek fire was a liquid weapon devised by the Byzantine Empire, which was the surviving, Greek-speaking eastern half of the Roman Empire. Any world is a valid world if it's alive. In the depiction on display at the Museum of Karlsruhe and in Berlin, the depiction is that of Prometheus confronted by a menacing large bird (assumed to be the eagle) with Hercules approaching from behind shooting his arrows at it. In addition to giving humanity fire, Prometheus claims to have taught them the arts of civilisation, such as writing, mathematics, agriculture, medicine, and science. "[69] With this, Boccaccio shows himself moving from the mediaeval sources with a shift of accent towards the attitude of the Renaissance humanists. [citation needed], The punishment of Prometheus as a consequence of the theft of fire and giving it to humans is a popular subject of both ancient and modern culture. The gods grew weary, the eagles grew weary, the wound closed wearily.There remains the inexplicable mass of rock. Prometheus then steals the fire of creative power from the workshop of Athena and Hephaistos and gives it to mankind. In this tradition, the orchestral representation of the myth has received the most sustained attention of composers. Werblowsky applied his own Jungian style of interpretation to appropriate parts of the Prometheus myth for the purpose of interpreting Milton. [40], Athens was the exception, here Prometheus was worshipped alongside Athene and Hephaistos. 4,6 von 5 Sternen 246. Zeus, king of the Olympian gods, sentenced Prometheus to eternal torment for his transgression. Hesiod writes, "From her is the race of women and female kind: of her is the deadly race and tribe of women who live amongst mortal men to their great trouble, no helpmeets in hateful poverty, but only in wealth" (590–594). Had Prometheus not provoked Zeus's wrath, "you would easily do work enough in a day to supply you for a full year even without working; soon would you put away your rudder over the smoke, and the fields worked by ox and sturdy mule would run to waste" (44–47). 1994. The three most prominent aspects of the Prometheus myth have parallels within the beliefs of many cultures throughout the world (see creation of man from clay, theft of fire, and references for eternal punishment). In Greek mythology, Prometheus (/prəˈmiːθiəs/; Ancient Greek: Προμηθεύς, [promɛːtʰéu̯s], possibly meaning "forethought"),[1] is a Titan god of fire. [24] At the centre of the drama are the results of Prometheus' theft of fire and his current punishment by Zeus. Oedipus therefore participates in our universal unconscious sense of guilt, but on this reading so do the gods" [...] "I sometimes wish that Freud had turned to Aeschylus instead, and given us the Prometheus complex rather than the Oedipus complex. Shelley, as the author himself discusses, admits the debt of his version of the myth to Aeschylus and the Greek poetic tradition which he assumes is familiar to readers of his own lyrical drama. For Plato, only the virtues of "reverence and justice can provide for the maintenance of a civilised society – and these virtues are the highest gift finally bestowed on men in equal measure. Hérold (French Edition) by Fauré, Gabriel, 1845–1924, Paul Alexandre Martin, 1856–1906. The Greek god is rarely presented using the fire as a destructive medium. Hesiod's first (after Chaos) are Gaia, Tartarus, Eros, Erebus, Hemera and Nyx.The primordial deities Gaia and Uranus give birth to the Titans, and the Cyclopes.The Titans Cronus and Rhea give birth to Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hestia, Hera and Demeter who overthrew the Titans. Hermes - (a.k.a. £53.18. The playwright's dependence on the Hesiodic source material is clear, though Prometheus Bound also includes a number of changes to the received tradition. Writing in the late British Renaissance, William Shakespeare uses the Promethean allusion in the famous death scene of Desdemona in his tragedy of Othello. The legend tried to explain the inexplicable. For Lynch, modern scholarship is hampered by not having the full trilogy of Prometheus by Aeschylus, the last two parts of which have been lost to antiquity. [43] These footraces took the form of relays in which teams of runners passed off a flaming torch. [63] Moyers asked Campbell the question in the following words, "In this sense, unlike heroes such as Prometheus or Jesus, we're not going on our journey to save the world but to save ourselves." [96] A tradition has of course grown among critics of finding allusions to Prometheus Bound in Richard Wagner's Ring cycle.[97]. Raggio summarises the Munich version[70] as follows; "The Munich panel represents the dispute between Epimetheus and Prometheus, the handsome triumphant statue of the new man, modelled by Prometheus, his ascension to the sky under the guidance of Minerva; the Strasburg panel shows in the distance Prometheus lighting his torch at the wheels of the Sun, and in the foreground on one side, Prometheus applying his torch to the heart of the statue and, on the other, Mercury fastening him to a tree." [63], Significantly, Campbell is also clear to indicate the limits of applying the metaphors of his methodology in his book The Hero with a Thousand Faces too closely in assessing the comparison of Prometheus and Jesus. It was first published fifteen years later in 1789. Hephaestus, when informed of the ongoing affair by Helios, resolved to catch the lovers in the act. Zeus in this case gets the help of Athena, Aphrodite, Hermes, the Graces and the Hours (59–76). [46] The festival of Prometheus was the Prometheia. According to Pausanias (2nd century AD), the torch relay, called lampadedromia or lampadephoria, was first instituted at Athens in honour of Prometheus. "[31], In a rare comparison of Prometheus in Aeschylus with Oedipus in Sophocles, Harold Bloom states that "Freud called Oedipus an 'immoral play,' since the gods ordained incest and parricide. In his book written in 1476–77 titled Quaestiones Quinque de Mente, Ficino indicates his preference for reading the Prometheus myth as an image of the human soul seeking to obtain supreme truth. Nur noch 15 auf Lager. He was a smithing god, making all of the weapons for Olympus and acting as a blacksmith for the gods. It is apparently not until Prometheus reveals this secret of Zeus's potential downfall that the two reconcile in the final play, Prometheus the Fire-Bringer or Prometheus Pyrphoros, a lost tragedy by Aeschylus. To which Campbell's well-known response was that, "But in doing that, you save the world. Greek god of fire is a crossword puzzle clue. This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 11:55. He is also the god of all craftsmen and smiths. [13] M. L. West notes that surviving references suggest that there may have been significant differences between the Titanomachy epic and the account of events in Hesiod; and that the Titanomachy may be the source of later variants of the Prometheus myth not found in Hesiod, notably the non-Hesiodic material found in the Prometheus Bound of Aeschylus.[23]. For instance, rather than being the son of Iapetus and Clymene Prometheus becomes the son of. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. All the details are evidently borrowed from Boccaccio's Genealogiae. The event of the release of Prometheus from captivity was frequently revisited on Attic and Etruscan vases between the sixth and fifth centuries BC. Prometheus' torment by the eagle and his rescue by Heracles were popular subjects in vase paintings of the 6th to 4th centuries BC. The wreaths worn symbolised the chains of Prometheus. [4] His liver would then grow back overnight, only to be eaten again the next day in an ongoing cycle. "Prometheus. Raggio then goes on to point out Plato's distinction of creative power (techne), which is presented as superior to merely natural instincts (physis). Moreover, Aeschylus anachronistically and artificially injects Io, another victim of Zeus's violence and ancestor of Heracles, into Prometheus' story. Hephaestus was, among other stuff, the Greek god of fire. Hesiod also adds more information to Theogony's story of the first woman, a maiden crafted from earth and water by Hephaestus now explicitly called Pandora ("all gifts") (82). 3 The Divine Poem, Prometheus Op. As god of fire, Hephaestus became the divine smith and patron of craftsmen; the natural volcanic or gaseous fires already connected with him were often considered to be his workshops. The most significant detail added to the myth found in, e.g., Sappho, Aesop and Ovid[53] was the central role of Prometheus in the creation of the human race. [78] For Shelley, both of these reading were to be substantially discounted in preference to his own concerns for promoting his own version of an idealised consciousness of a society guided by the precepts of High British Romanticism and High British Idealism.[79]. Note that Hyperion and Phoebe can be found in the Titans page, while Apollo and … The playwright undoubtedly had religious concerns; for instance, Jacqueline de Romilly[29] suggests that his treatment of time flows directly out of his belief in divine justice. Stanislaw Richter. [48] Ancient artists depict Prometheus wearing the pointed cap of an artist or artisan, like Hephaistos, and also the crafty hero Odysseus. This further enraged Zeus, who sent the first woman to live with humanity (Pandora, not explicitly mentioned). The etymology of the theonym prometheus is debated. Prometheus Bound, perhaps the most famous treatment of the myth to be found among the Greek tragedies, is traditionally attributed to the 5th-century BC Greek tragedian Aeschylus. For example, it is necessary to understand and have knowledge of the reason for Prometheus' punishment if the reader is to form an understanding of whether the exoneration portrayed by Shelley in his version of the Prometheus myth is justified or unjustified. They are deities that control the celestial bodies and the weather. Prométhée; Tragédie Lyrique En 3 Actes De Jean Lorrain & F.a. The subject is that of the creation of life by a scientist, thus bestowing life through the application and technology of medical science rather than by the natural acts of reproduction. [citation needed] In yet more symbolism, the struggle of Prometheus is located by some at Mount Elbrus or at Mount Kazbek, two volcanic promontories in the Caucasus Mountains beyond which for the ancient Greeks lay the realm of the barbarii. Significantly, Lynch further comments that although the Prometheus trilogy is not available, that the Orestia trilogy by Aeschylus remains available and may be assumed to provide significant insight into the overall structural intentions which may be ascribed to the Prometheus trilogy by Aeschylus as an author of significant consistency and exemplary dramatic erudition. The magazine now exists online.[83]. In the Book of Job, significant comparisons can be drawn between the sustained suffering of Job in comparison to that of eternal suffering and torment represented in the Prometheus myth. Voice and Orchestra. He is a fire and blacksmith god for both. Hephaestus - (a.k.a. For a critic to construct an Aeschylean theology would be as quixotic as designing a typology of Aeschylean man. Beethoven: Creatures of Prometheus by L. von Beethoven, Sir Charles Mackerras and Scottish Chamber Orchestra (2005). In his dialogue titled Protagoras, Plato contrasts Prometheus with his dull-witted brother Epimetheus, "Afterthinker". [12], The oldest record of Prometheus is in Hesiod, but stories of theft of fire by a trickster figure are widespread around the world. Karl-Martin Dietz: Metamorphosen des Geistes. The literary critic Harold Bloom in his book Shelley's Mythmaking expresses his high expectation of Shelley in the tradition of mythopoeic poetry. Greek God of Fire and Metalworking Hephaestus was the god of fire, metalworking, stone masonry, forges and the art of sculpture. [61] This same image would also be used later in the Rome of the Augustan age as documented by Furtwangler. The myth of Prometheus’ stealing fire from the gods is one of the most famous Greek myths today and probably the most famous in specific relation to fire. The poem offers direct biblical connotations for the Prometheus myth which was unseen in any of the ancient Greek poets dealing with the Prometheus myth in either drama, tragedy, or philosophy. The influence of a vital person vitalizes, there's no doubt about it. Scriabin: Symphony No. Although the classical tradition is that Hephaistos split Zeus's head to allow Athene's birth, that story has also been told of Prometheus. [91], An adaptation of Goethe's poetic version of the myth was composed by Hugo Wolf, Prometheus (Bedecke deinen Himmel, Zeus, 1889), as part of his Goethe-lieder for voice and piano,[92] later transcribed for orchestra and voice. The artificial chemical element promethium is named after Prometheus. There is one of these at Olympia and at Delphi, where she was also associated with the omphalos stone, marking the navel of the world. Pseudo-Apollodorus moreover clarifies a cryptic statement (1026–29) made by Hermes in Prometheus Bound, identifying the centaur Chiron as the one who would take on Prometheus' suffering and die in his place. People have the notion of saving the world by shifting things around, changing the rules [...] No, no! In Greek mythology, Prometheus (/ p r ə ˈ m iː θ i ə s / ; Ancient Greek : Προμηθεύς, [promɛːtʰéu̯s], possibly meaning "forethought"), is a Titan god of fire. The Nepali poet Laxmi Prasad Devkota (d. 1949) also wrote an epic titled Prometheus (प्रमीथस). The comparison of the suffering of Jesus after his sentencing in Jerusalem is limited to the three days, from Thursday to Saturday, and leading to the culminating narratives corresponding to Easter Sunday. Fragmentary evidence indicates that Heracles, as in Hesiod, frees the Titan in the trilogy's second play, Prometheus Unbound. 4,4 von 5 Sternen 195. For Goethe, the metaphorical comparison of Prometheus to the image of the Son from the New Testament narratives was of central importance, with the figure of Zeus in Goethe's reading being metaphorically matched directly to the image of the Father from the New Testament narratives. In Prometheus Unbound (1820), a four-act lyrical drama, Percy Bysshe Shelley rewrites the lost play of Aeschylus so that Prometheus does not submit to Zeus (under the Latin name Jupiter), but instead supplants him in a triumph of the human heart and intellect over tyrannical religion. Check out our greek god of fire selection for the very best in unique or custom, handmade pieces from our shops. [20] along with the works of Hesiod. The Eulenspiegel Society began the magazine Prometheus in the early 1970s;[83] it is a decades-long-running magazine exploring issues important to kinksters, ranging from art and erotica, to advice columns and personal ads, to conversation about the philosophy of consensual kink. These have included the symphonic poem by Franz Liszt titled Prometheus from 1850, among his other Symphonic Poems (No. Another example is found where the prototype of Prometheus is also recognisable in the early Christian era of late Roman antiquity. [33] Mary Shelley's 1818 novel Frankenstein is subtitled "The Modern Prometheus", in reference to the novel's themes of the over-reaching of modern humanity into dangerous areas of knowledge. 50 ans Promethee enchaine (Prometheus enchained): Extrement lent, Stefan Lindgren. He was the son of Zeus and Hera and married to Aphrodite by Zeus to prevent a war of the gods fighting for her hand. Zeus chose the latter, setting a precedent for future sacrifices (556–557). The usual view is that it signifies "forethought," as that of his brother Epimetheus denotes "afterthought". "Hesiod's Incorporative Poetics in the Theogony and the Contradictions of Prometheus. [76] Although Bloom is least interested in the first two schools, the second one on the Christian orthodox has special bearing on the reception of the Prometheus myth during late Roman antiquity and the synthesis of the New Testament canon. Goethe's Prometheus is significant for the contrast it evokes with the biblical text of Corinthians rather than for its similarities. 27,08 € 27,08 € (2,71 €/kg) KOSTENLOSE Lieferung. He was worshiped by all craftsmen in Athens. Works of classical music, opera, and ballet directly or indirectly inspired by the myth of Prometheus have included renderings by some of the major composers of both the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The world without spirit is a wasteland. [25] It has been suggested by M.L. [11] The suggestion that Prometheus was in origin the human "inventor of the fire-sticks, from which fire is kindled" goes back to Diodorus Siculus in the first century BC. In the trick at Mecone (535–544), a sacrificial meal marking the "settling of accounts" between mortals and immortals, Prometheus played a trick against Zeus. Prometheus stole fire back from Zeus in a giant fennel-stalk and restored it to humanity (565–566). Kraus, Walther, and Lothar Eckhardt. Hephaestus, also known as Hephaistos, is the Greek god of fire, the forge, volcanoes, craftsmen, blacksmiths, technology, metals and sculpture in mythology. His cult reached Athens not later than about 600 bce (although it scarcely touched Greece proper) and arrived in Campania not long afterward. West, Martin L., ed. Some of these changes are rather minor. 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